Buddhism A religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, who lived in the 6th to 5th centuries B.C., in India. It began to spread through China in the 2nd century B.C., and Japan in the Heian period (see history page). See Wikipedia, TV Tropes, or Everything2.
Chakra A Sanskrit word meaning "wheel" or "turning." Various religions or philosophies, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Qigong, use the term to describe energy vortices within the body, which are related to... different states of consciousness, I guess, and... stuff like that. There are seven primary chakras, though I think there are alot of lesser ones, as well. It's all very confusing, and I'm afraid I haven't studied it much. But the term is also used in various works of fiction, such as Naruto and Avatar: The Last Airbender, though it doesn't always mean quite what it's supposed to, in reality. See Wikipedia or Everything2.
Ch'an A Chinese sect of Buddhism, equivalent to Japanese Zen.
Falun Dafa is a spirititual movement based on the ancient Chinese practices of qigong, which involve the process of refining the body and mind through exercises and meditation. These practices are also called Falun Gong, a term which is often used interchangeably with the spiritual movement of Falun Dafa itself, though Falun Dafa goes beyond the practices of qigong, incorporating principles of Buddhism and Taoism. There has been great controversy because of the Chinese government's intolerance of this movement. You may read more about Falun Dafa here, or see Wikipedia.
Feng shui An ancient Chinese system of aesthetics. See Wikipedia or The Feng Shui Society.
I Ching "The Book of Changes" is an ancient Chinese divination manual. See I Ching on the Net, Everthing2, or Wikipedia.
Jingluo In ancient Chinese medical theory, the meridians (channels and collaterals) through which qi travels between organs of the body and also connect to points on the surface which may be stimulated by acupuncture or acupressure. See Wikipedia.
Kami The objects of worship of Shinto, which may be gods or spirits, natural objects, or forces of nature. See Wikipedia or Everything2.
Ki Life force energy; the Japanese equivalent of qi.
Kokoro A combination of heart, mind, and spirit. Basically, human intelligence and emotions. Some animes (such as "Astro Boy") will deal with robots which have kokoro in the form of artificial intelligence.
Namaste A Hindi/Sanskrit greeting (commonly used by practicioners of Yoga), normally accompanied with a slight bow and hand gesture, which basically means that the speaker recognizes the divinity that resides within the one being addressed, and that they are the same. Something like that, anyway. It can be used as either a "hello" or a "goodbye." See Wikipedia or Everything2.
Onmyodo A Japanese system of divination and magic based on Chinese philosophies, influenced by Taosim, Buddhism, and Shintoism. See Wikipedia or TV Tropes.
Qi or chi Chinese term for life force or spirit energy. (In Japanese, ki.) See TV Tropes, Everything2, or Wikipedia.
Qigong (Chigong, Chi kung) Ancient Chinese practices of exercise, breathing, and meditation. There are many forms of qigong, and it may be used purely for health reasons, or as a part of religions such as Taoism, Buddhism, and Falun Dafa, and is also the basis of martial arts. See NQA, Everything2, or Wikipedia.
Satori Understanding; Buddhist enlightenment. See Everything2 or Wikipedia.
Sesshin means "to touch the heart/mind." It is a Zen meditative retreat. Which kind of makes me wonder if this is why episodes of Cowboy Bebop are called "sessions." Probably not, but I think it's an interesting thought... See Wikipedia.
Shiatsu "Finger pressure." Japanese massage therapy, or more accurately acupressure, which is related to the Chinese Jingluo theory. See Wikipedia.
Shinto A traditional religion of Japan, in which kami are worshipped. See Wikipedia, TV Tropes, or Everything2.
Yin & yang A Chinese philosophy dealing with the interconnectedness of apparently opposite, but actually complementary forces in nature. See Everything2 or Wikipedia.
Zazen Sitting meditation, a practice of Zen Buddhism. See Wikipedia.
Zen A moment at the end of each episode of The Daily Show. J/K! Actually, it is a Japanese sect of Buddhism, introduced to Japan in the 13th century through China's Ch'an Buddhism. Zen is basically about meditation. See Wikipedia.
See also: mythology.